S&P 500: The S&P 500 Index is the Standard & Poor's composite index of 500 stocks, a widely recognized, unmanaged index of common stock prices. One cannot invest directly into an index.
Nifty-Fifty: The 50 stocks that were most favored by institutional investors in the 1960s and 1970s. Characterized by consistent earnings growth and high Price/Earnings valuation.
P/E multiple: Price to earnings (P/E) multiple is a valuation ratio that indicates how much an investor is paying for a dollar of company net income earnings.